Built for service in Europe with the US Army Transportation Corps in support of Allied forces during WW2 2,120 S160 2-8-0 goods locomotives were constructed.
800 locomotives were delivered, mostly to South Wales ports for commissioning by GWR and USATC personel at the GWRs Newport Ebbw Junction shed, with around 400 being loaned to the British railway companies prior to the invasion of Europe. Following 'D day' the locomotives were prepared for shipping to France, along with USATC rolling stock to ensure the European railways systems could be got up and running quickly to support the Allied forces.
Despite being built quickly and with some economy in respect of the short intended life many of these locomotives passed to European national railways after the war, serving from Spain to Russia for many years. 26 examples are known to survive in preservation with 8 in the UK, all re-imported from Europe.